Nov 22, 2005

Nov 20, 2005

Name that band.

Back in the day when I was an exhibiting artist who dabbled in performance art, one of my pet projects was to form a rock band. This band would ONLY play the openings of classic rock'n roll songs, but would play those opening bars for up to twenty minutes each. "Louie, Louie", "Satisfaction", "Gloria", "Like a Rolling Stone", etc., etc. Grinding, repetitive, and mind numbing.

The band was to be called, "Grinning Like An Idiot".

Runner-up names were, "Titty Pink", "Pissed Kitties", and "Deaf Pedestrians" (a name someone recently took for a real band).

Obviously, like so many of my "pet projects", it never came to fruition, hindered no doubt by my lack of ability to play a musical instrument (I intended to contract out the musicians...for free).


Nov 16, 2005

Job done, it is finished.



Christ in the Wilderness

"It is finished."


Ms. Tatiana Androsov

Thanks-Giving Square Foundation
1627 Pacific Ave.
P.O. Box 131770
Dallas, TX 75313

November 17, 2005


Dear Tatiana,

It has been an honor and a privilege to offer Thanks-Giving Square a Christian worship service on Wednesdays for the last fourteen years. We have held services in the Chapel every Wednesday the Chapel has been open since 1991. By my account, we have donated (or have caused to be donated) almost $10,000 to the Thanks-Giving Square Foundation for the continuation and operation of this wonderful gift to the City of Dallas and her visitors.

All things must come to an end. Over the last few years, finding clergy to officiate in this service has become increasing difficult. Recently, it has become impossible. As a result of this inability to continue as an Episcopal Eucharistic Service (as we were “chartered”), we can no longer offer a Wednesday service at Thanks-Giving Square. Effective Wednesday, December 7th, our services will (and must) cease.

May God continue to bless and preserve Thanks-Giving Square and its mission in and to the heart of Dallas.

Sincerely yours,


P. Michael Summer
Lay Coordinator
Christ in the Wilderness Eucharistic Fellowship


C: The Rt. Rev. James M. Stanton

Nov 14, 2005

An unpublished Letter to the Editor from last year.

Regarding Mr. Rod Dreher’s (Dallas Morning News Editoral Board member) waving the bloody rag (Partial Birth Abortion), he and I had an interesting exchange a few months ago. As an evangelical, born-again Christian, abortion is a serious concern of mine. As a Christian who sees Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount not just as proof of our sinful nature, but also as a Road Map to Peace, the death penalty and the burgeoning prison population are also serious concerns of mine.

In the mid-nineties, I almost decided to join the Republican Party based on their pro-life stand, but oddly enough it was the Partial Birth Abortion (PBA) fight that kept me away from them. Rod waves the bloody rag at John Kerry over his refusal to vote for the GOP’s partial birth abortion ban, and yet Kerry was willing to vote for the same bill, but using the wording the AMA requested (the same bill that President Clinton supported). That would have excused the procedure to protect the life and health of the mother, as the discretion of the physician.

Now, there are very poor statistics about PBA. The “Secular Left” claims it is an exceedingly rare procedure, only used in extreme circumstances, while the “Religious Right” claims that it is a far too common procedure, claiming the lives of hundreds or thousands of babies each year. And here’s the rub: if the GOP is right, and there are hundreds of PBA deaths every year, then the six years wasted since Clinton vetoed the original PBA bill, the one GOP wouldn’t compromise on, has resulted in thousands of unnecessary deaths, victims of a political ploy to grab and secure power.

According to Christianity Today, abortions in America declined by almost 50% during the Clinton presidency. This wasn’t the result of anti-abortion laws, picket lines, or even abortion clinic bombings, but by the “springing up” economic conditions. As we have returned to the “trickle down” economic plans the GOP favors, I suspect we may also have returned to rising abortion rates. Abortion is primarily an economically driven decision for the poor and lower-middle classes. Barbara Bush has boasted that safe, legal abortions will always be available for the affluent (she said this in 1992 as she opposed and defeated a pro-life plank in the GOP platform that would have leaving the country to GET an abortion illegal).

I fear that the fact the GOP passed three tax cuts BEFORE addressing Partial Birth Abortion, and then only when President Bush began sinking in the polls, sadly shows where the GOP’s real priorities lie. The next time Mr. Dreher waves the bloody rag, I pray to God Almighty that he will see the blood on his own hands.

(This was a letter that I wrote to the Dallas Morning News during last year's Presidential Campaign that went unpublished. The News, however, expressed an interest in having me write a Viewpoints piece along these lines. I declined, either out of cowardice, or because discretion remains the greater part of valor.)

Nov 9, 2005

Good bye to a Ziggurat.



After fourteen years (twelve under my "leadership"), Christ in the Wilderness fellowship is suspending operation. Fourteen years of a weekly Anglican/Episcopal/Christian presense in downtown Dallas at Thanks Giving Square Chapel will come to an end, effective November 16th, 2005. More later, perhaps.


Nov 8, 2005

I had a dream, but was I listening?


Boy Scout Hill, White Rock Lake, Dallas, Texas

I dreamed a dream the other night. It was a dream that filled my heart and lungs (a cardio-pulmonary dream?) like taking in a long, deep breath of fresh, cool air. It was one of those "deep dreams" you have during R.E.M. sleep. It was a vivid, full color, stereo sound dream that caused me to wake up and just lay there in my bed wondering about it. Why did I dream this, and why was it so powerful?

It was a simple dream. I was standing on the side of a hill overlooking White Rock Lake, a location just a mile from my house. This hill is known as Boy Scout Hill, and is covered in native prairie grasses. Unlike some native prairie grass areas, this is an original area that has never been plowed. This small hillside is just the way it was before Europeans invaded Texas.

Seated in the grass on this hillside were groups of people. I recognized some of them as people I might normally call adversaries. Others were friends. Most were strangers. I was walking from group to group, with my arms open and my hands held out. In a basso profundo voice, I was singing to them: loudly, strongly, clearly. I was singing the old African-American spiritual, "He's Got the Whole World in His Hands".

He's got the whole world in His hands
He's got the whole world in His hands
He's got the whole world in His hands
He's got the whole world in His hands

He's got the fish of the sea in His hands
He's got the birds of the air in His hands
He's got the fish of the sea in His hands
He's got the whole world in His hands

He's got the gamblin' man in His hands
He's got the sinner man in His hands
He's got the gamblin' man in His hands
He's got the whole world in His hands

He's got the little bitsy baby in His hands
He's got the little bitsy baby in His hands
He's got the little bitsy baby in His hands
He's got the whole world in His hands

He's got you and me, brother, in His hands
He's got you and me, sister, in His hands
He's got everybody here, in His hands
He's got the whole world in His hands

It was a vivid, full color, stereo sound dream that caused me to wake up and just lay there in my bed wondering about it.

Why did I dream this, and why was it so powerful?

In the last days, God says, I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams. Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy.

Acts 2:17-18


Nov 3, 2005

Still true, stilled voices.

95 Theses On the Nationalistic Idolatry of Churches in the United States

Written By Kingdom Now, January 2002

www.kingdomnow.org

Summary: The tragedies of 11 September 2001 are grievous not only for the lives taken by terrorists, but also because their aftermath has powerfully revealed that we, the Church in the United States, have prostrated ourselves before the idol of our nation. Thus, it is with great sadness that the endorsers of this document humbly plead with our churches to join us in repentance, turning from the United States' twisted notions of liberty, democracy and justice, from the historical misconceptions of its "Christian heritage" and from the ubiquitous greed that drives our nation. Jesus is calling his people in the United States today to grieve the sins of our nation, to return to our first love, and to once again recognize him alone as our King and the provider of our security.

Out of love and concern for the truth, and with the object of eliciting it, the following theses are submitted to the Church in the United States for public discussion, under the guidance of the endorsers of this document. We request that discussion on this matter be directed to: discuss@kingdomnow.org.

1. When our Lord and Master, Jesus Christ said, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand," he called us to become citizens of His Kingdom.

2. This Kingdom to which we are called cannot properly be understood as equivalent to any worldly kingdom (nation or empire) -- cf., Jn 18:36, Lk 17:20-21.

3. Thus, the United States of America is not the Kingdom of God, nor did it ever have any special place -- as a nation -- in that Kingdom.

4. Furthermore, the United States, despite the manifold references to "God" in its defining documents, never recognizes Jesus as part of the Godhead it proclaims.

5. Despite its thoroughly religious character, the United States also never makes any pretension of allegiance to Jesus and to his will for establishing a kingdom here on Earth (Mt 6:10).

6. The Founding Fathers of the United States -- despite their unanimous theism -- held a wide spectrum of religious beliefs, and the claim that they all were disciples of Jesus is a dangerous falsehood grounded in boastful mythology that arose in the early nineteenth century.

7. Even those few Founding Fathers who did profess to follow Christ, generally yielded to the Enlightenment spirit of that day and understood their faith in very private, individualized terms.

8. Thus, they downplayed or ignored the socio-political reality of the Church (God's people) as the Kingdom proclaimed, and established, by Jesus.

9. Therefore, the only vestige of the Christian faith that we find exhibited in the documents that established the United States are moral and legal imperatives condensed from the Scriptures.

10. However, the Founding Fathers did not adopt the moral and legal principles of the Scriptures as a whole, but rather selectively drew upon principles that fit their vision.

11. Thus, Scriptural principles that were not consistent with their worldly philosophies (economics, Enlightenment individualism, etc.) -- e.g., the social and economic justice of the Jubilee -- were discarded.

12. Even if the Founding Fathers had embraced the whole of Scriptural law (and yet refused to recognize Christ), the United States would not be a Christian Nation, for as the Apostle Paul reminds us (Rom. 3:20ff, Eph. 2:8-9, etc.) the basis of Christianity is faith in Christ's gospel of grace, not Law.

13. Therefore, the Founding Fathers, by clinging to the philosophies of their day and thus relegating faith to the private sphere and by choosing a selective approach to the Scriptures, created in essence a space in which a new religion could arise.

14. As the nineteenth century progressed and as the United States grew as an economic and political power -- and at the same time, as the church was waning as a cultural institution-- a new religion did emerge, one which astute scholars have labeled the "American Civil Religion."

15. The highest value of this American civil religion is not Christianity's love for Yahweh and neighbor, but rather personal liberty.

16. For us, the followers of Jesus, liberty is a virtue, but it is not the highest virtue.

17. Indeed, Jesus's statement that "You shall know the truth and the truth shall set you free" reminds us that true liberty comes only through Christ (who calls himself the "Truth," John 14:6) and thus that liberty must take a backseat to Christ-like love.

18. Furthermore, the true freedom that we experience as a result of knowing and obeying Jesus (I Jn 2:3) is not something that a worldly government can either grant or deny.

19. Beginning with the American Revolution, the United States' relentless pursuit of liberty has been the cause of most of its wars, in which hundreds of thousands of lives have been taken -- including those of many Christians.

20. In contrast, Jesus himself distinguished His Kingdom from worldly ones by stating that His Kingdom needed no violence to defend it (Jn. 18:36).

21. Jesus's words therefore remind us again that the United States is not the Kingdom of God, and that the God in which it trusts is not the triune Yahweh.

22. Thus, it is not difficult to see that this new American religion centered on liberty required a god shaped in its own image, an idol quite distinct from the triune God of the Christian faith.

23. This god, although he bore some resemblance to Yahweh, was more reminiscent of the ideological god of the eighteenth century philosophers and was strikingly characterized by the highest virtues of their humanism.

24. Robert Bellah has described this idol: "The god of the civil religion is not only rather 'unitarian,' he is also on the austere side, much more related to order, law and right than to salvation and love."

25. Although the Founding Fathers did not intend to replace Christianity with a civil religion, they did expect that, at least for the nation's leaders, Christianity would be subordinated to the will of the State (Robert Bellah has said: "(In the United States,) the national magistrate, whatever his private religious views, operates under the rubrics of the civil religion as long as he is in his official capacity.")

26. Despite the intentions of the Founding Fathers, Jesus has made it clear that his followers (in the United States or elsewhere) cannot simultaneously serve two masters for they will end up loving one and hating the other-- cf. Mt 6:24, Lk. 16:13.

27. Thus, American governmental officials who profess Christ (and particularly those at the highest levels) find themselves straining to serve two masters and we, the Church, should not look to them as a heroes of the Christian faith or as prophets speaking God's words to His people.

28. The American civil religion, with its idolatrous images of the divine, has survived throughout the history of the United States because it is useful for blinding and deceiving the Church.

29. For America to retain its power, we the Church must be deceived for as Herbert Richardson has said: "The real limitation on the power of the state is its citizens' loyalty to and participation in groups whose membership, goals and procedures are not isomorphic or consistent with the membership, goals and procedures of the state."

30. Following in the pattern of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, we -- the churches in the United States -- have been greatly deceived by lies grounded in pride.

31. We have fallen prey to the presumptuous notion that our nation is God's chosen people; this proud lie no doubt has numerous roots including the early Puritan view that understood the American colonies as a "New Israel" and the Founding Fathers' choice to claim a divine origin for the fundamental values and laws of the nation.

32. The pride that we express as a Church in "the American way of life" wreaks havoc upon the fundamental equality and unity that undergirds Yahweh's universal Church -- cf. Gal. 3:28.

33. Indeed, many Christians around the world -- e.g., in Germany or in Vietnam -- have been hated or even killed as a result of the nationalistic pride of the United States, which is always at its highest levels during times of war.

34. Such nationalistic pride is incompatible with our calling to follow Jesus's example of humility, "considering others better than ourselves" (Phil. 2:3).

35. Indeed, in the Old Testament, pride was a prominent symbol of the lack of God's favor upon a person or a nation (cf. Ps 94:1-2, Pr 16:19, Is 2:12).

36. Thus, we -- the Church in the U.S. -- must carefully weigh nationalistic petitions for God to bless America against the biblical understanding of Yahweh as one who "opposes the proud, but gives grace to the humble" (James 4:6).

37. We also have been deceived into looking to its government for security -- instead of looking to Yahweh.

38. It is Yahweh who created us and it is Yahweh who will sustain us and protect us (cf. Mt. 6:25-34).

39. Jesus told us that our primary calling as the Church is to seek first His Kingdom -- not a worldly Kingdom -- and when we do so, we are promised that our needs will be met (Mt 6:33).

40. Although the United States and other nations may set themselves up as providers of sustenance and security, we the Church must always remember that the power that Yahweh allows a nation to have is minuscule in comparison to Yahweh's omnipotence.

41. Thus, the Scriptures provide us with images of Yahweh scoffing at nations (Ps. 2) and considering them as "less than nothing and emptiness" (Is. 40:17).

42. We must therefore understand the United States of America, as a "kingdom" of this world, in light of these Scriptural images, and thus treat it with a healthy dose of caution.

43. However, we the Church do have a clear biblical responsibility to lovingly respect and to pray for the governing authorities (cf. Rom. 12:14-13:8, I Tim. 2:1-2).

44. Maintaining an attitude of "loving respect" however does not mean that we have an obligation to endorse the government or to unconditionally approve of all its policies; neither does it mean that we should unquestioningly obey every one of the nation's edicts.

45. Indeed, our primary responsibility is to be obedient to the triune God, for it is Yahweh, and not the United States, who dictates what is right.

46. Thus, the spirit of love reminds us that if -- in a situation where the righteousness of Yahweh and the righteousness of the nation conflict-- we choose to obey Yahweh, then we should be prepared to face the wrath of the state.

47. However, if we suffer, are imprisoned or even die for our insistence on being obedient to Jesus, we are blessed by Yahweh (cf. I Pet 2:19-21, Mt 5:10).

48. Our call to lovingly respect the governing authorities of the nation, also dictates that we should not angrily demonize the government, but instead mourn the sins of her nation.

49. We, the Church in the United States, have also been deceived about the way in which Yahweh's blessing is poured out; viz., economic wealth is rarely a sign of God's blessing.

50. And in those instances where Yahweh does bless a person or people with wealth, the intent is that that wealth should be lavished upon others, not stored up (Mt. 6:19-21, I Tim. 6:5-11, Lk. 3:11).

51. Indeed, the New Testament image of the Church's economics is one characterized by sharing (Greek, "koinonia"), not by greed or the amassing of capital (cf. Acts 2:44-45, 4:32, I John 1:6-7).

52. In contrast, the power of the United States has come through economic domination as much as it has through political domination.

53. Thus, the nation of the United States with its wealth -- especially relative to the rest of the world -- must be regarded by the Church with caution for money is a powerful force and one that easily can become a false god (cf. Mt 6:24).

54. After encountering the rich young ruler, Jesus remarked to his disciples that: "It will be hard for a rich person to enter the kingdom of heaven" (Mt. 19:23).

55. Similarly, it would seem equally difficult for a wealthy nation to attain a favorable status in the Kingdom that Jesus proclaimed.

56. Thus, in light of the United States' wealth, we must examine critically any claim that the U.S. is favored by Yahweh.

57. In accord with the Scriptural principle that conflict and wars often have their origins in greed (Jam. 4:1-2), the affluence of the United States has been a major contributing factor to both the wars it waged abroad (e.g., in the Persian Gulf, to protect its access to oil) and its excessive spending on the defense of its own soil.

58. The rich young ruler, held captive by his own greed, made a decisive choice to not follow Jesus, and a good case can be made that the United States has done likewise.

59. We the Church have, in many cases, also been blinded to the fact that the United States is not a democracy.

60. From its earliest days to the present, from the male Colonial land-owners to Corporations and lobby groups, the power in the United States has always rested primarily in the hands of the wealthy.

61. Furthermore, the United States historically has never completely succeeded at protecting the basic rights of its most powerless minorities: from Native Americans to Blacks to Women to the unborn.

62. Despite the fact that -- in the words of Frederick Douglass -- the United States' own claims of equality and democracy are "hollow mockery," it hypocritically has been quick to take up arms in defense of democracy abroad (Korea, Vietnam, etc.).

63. Indeed, democracy -- even in its purest incarnation -- is not the modus operandi of the Kingdom of God, for our sovreign and omnipotent King Yahweh loves all people and thus has a special concern for the marginalized minority (cf. Lk. 4:16-20).

64. Thus, we the Church in the United States must be careful not to put too high of a value on democracy, lest visions of this earthly form of government obscure the sovreignty of God.

65. Furthermore, we as God's chosen people -- for whom mere anger is a grave sin (cf. Mt 5:21-22) -- cannot endorse wars waged in the name of earthly ideals including democracy.

66. Justice, like democracy and liberty, is another ideal that the United States is quick to defend.

67. The Scriptures are unquestionably clear that Yahweh is a God who delights in justice (cf. Is. 5:16, 30:8, Mic. 6:8, etc.).

68. However, genuine justice must be grounded in Truth, not half-truths, rumors, speculations or propaganda.

69. We, the Church in the United States, have a responsibility to act like the Church in Berea (Acts 17:10-11), carefully examining in the light of the Scriptures the claims that are brought before it.

70. Thus, given that the concepts of liberty and democracy that the United States presents are flawed, we should be particularly careful when the United States makes appeals to justice.

71. One of our fundamental principles as the Church is that humanity is deeply flawed (or "fallen"), and therefore that any human claims to truth (and thus justice also) must be made in humility, admitting the possibility of error.

72. Therefore, we must also carefully examine the attitude with which the United States (or any government) makes appeals to justice.

73. The Old Testament law, in sanctioning "an eye for an eye," thus limits the scope of just retribution to no more than was taken.

74. Thus, we the Church who have been called by Jesus to an even higher standard than that of the Old Testament (Mt. 5:38-42), must resist initiatives of retaliatory rage that seek to be increasingly destructive, for we cannot both love Yahweh and hatefully destroy other human beings (I Jn. 4:20).

75. Although we the Church share Jesus's longing for justice, we must recognize in humility that our pursuit of justice must be subordinated to our faithfulness in following Jesus, the Prince of Peace.

76. Indeed, faithfulness to Jesus and to the building of his Kingdom is our primary calling, and we can no longer adulterously serve two masters: Jesus and the United States.

77. Sadly, the tragedies of 11 September 2001 have unearthed a massive vein of nationalism in our churches in the United States.

78. Jesus's Church, like the Israelites in the promised land, is called to be a holy --set apart-- people in the midst of their pagan neighbors (Deut. 7:6, 1 Pet 2:9).

79. However, since September 11, our churches in the U.S. have become exponentially more vocal about praising and defending our own golden calf: the United States.

80. We are thus in grave danger for one of our fundamental principles is that we are neither to craft nor to worship any false gods (cf. Ex 20:1-5).

81. Today more than ever, God's people in the United States need to hear the words of Jesus: "Repent! For the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand."

82. The Greek word in this verse that is translated "Repent!" literally indicates a changing of mind.

83. The Church in the United States needs Jesus to transform us by renewing and changing our minds, in order that we may no longer be conformed to the worldly culture of the United States (Rom. 12:2).

84. The Scriptures promise the Church that if we confess our sins, Yahweh -- who is faithful and just -- will "forgive our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness" (I Jn. 1:9).

85. Therefore, we, the Church in the United States, must confess that we have fallen for the proud lies of nationalism.

86. Furthermore, we need forgiveness for the patriotic idols that we have crafted and for our arrogance in relating to other nations.

87. We must also confess that we have trusted in our nation to bring us sustenance and security and that we have been slaves to wealth and greed.

88. If we humble ourselves before Yahweh, the blood of Jesus will cleanse us, even from the blood on our hands from the lives that we have taken to appease our idols (liberty, democracy and the United States).

89. Jesus will not only cleanse us, but will also free us from our economic enslavement to greed and from our political enslavement to lies and arrogance.

90. Thus, forgiven, cleansed and freed, we may once again pledge our allegiance, in word and in deed, to Jesus's Kingdom alone.

91. And in recognizing Jesus as King, we must have loving respect at all times for those who govern our land, and especially at those times when we disagree with them.

92. We, the Church in the United States, must come to Yahweh in true humility, admitting our many sins and asking Jesus to reign once again as our sole King and Master.

93. For it is the Church's foremost desire that Yahweh's Kingdom come and the will of God be done on Earth as it is in heaven!

94. To this end, the Church -- once cleansed -- must commit to being zealous in following Christ, their King, through penalties, imprisonments, and deaths.

95. And let us be more confident of entering heaven through these many tribulations than through the false assurance of security that the United States provides.

I couldn't have said it better myself.

The prime reason that the Moose is not an elephant is that the GOP is theologically devoted to comforting the comfortable and afflicting the afflicted. The blessed sacrament of the high church of the Republican Party is the permanent elimination of the estate tax.

-- Marshall Whitman, former aide to Senator John McCain, and proprietor of the Bull Moose blog

Oct 31, 2005

Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences

Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in Ordinary on the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter.

In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.

    1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance.

    2. This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is administered by the priests.

    3. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh.

    4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.

    5. The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of the Canons.

    6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven.

    7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His vicar, the priest.

    8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to them, nothing should be imposed on the dying.

    9. Therefore the Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to us, because in his decrees he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.

    10. Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for purgatory.

    11. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept.

    12. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.

    13. The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them.

    14. The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater is the fear.

    15. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.

    16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety.

    17. With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and love increase.

    18. It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love.

    19. Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of it.

    20. Therefore by "full remission of all penalties" the pope means not actually "of all," but only of those imposed by himself.

    21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved;

    22. Whereas he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this life.

    23. If it is at all possible to grant to any one the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest.

    24. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and highsounding promise of release from penalty.

    25. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish.

    26. The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of intercession.

    27. They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory].

    28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone.

    29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. Severinus and Paschal.

    30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission.

    31. Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is also the man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most rare.

    32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon.

    33. Men must be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him;

    34. For these "graces of pardon" concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man.

    35. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessionalia.

    36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon.

    37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon.

    38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the declaration of divine remission.

    39. It is most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition.

    40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them].

    41. Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love.

    42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy.

    43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons;

    44. Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty.

    45. 45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God.

    46. Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for their own families, and by no means to squander it on pardons.

    47. Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is a matter of free will, and not of commandment.

    48. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring.

    49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God.

    50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep.

    51. Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money to very many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of St. Peter might have to be sold.

    52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the commissary, nay, even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon it.

    53. They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others.

    54. Injury is done the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this Word.

    55. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.

    56. The "treasures of the Church," out of which the pope. grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the people of Christ.

    57. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only gather them.

    58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man.

    59. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time.

    60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure;

    61. For it is clear that for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases, the power of the pope is of itself sufficient.

    62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God.

    63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last.

    64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.

    65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches.

    66. The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men.

    67. The indulgences which the preachers cry as the "greatest graces" are known to be truly such, in so far as they promote gain.

    68. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and the piety of the Cross.

    69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of apostolic pardons, with all reverence.

    70. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the pope.

    71. He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed!

    72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed!

    73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by any art, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons.

    74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love and truth.

    75. To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the Mother of God -- this is madness.

    76. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned.

    77. It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against the pope.

    78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in I. Corinthians xii.

    79. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.

    80. The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the people, will have an account to render.

    81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to rescue the reverence due to the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity.

    82. To wit: -- "Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial."

    83. Again: -- "Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?"

    84. Again: -- "What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake?"

    85. Again: -- "Why are the penitential canons long since in actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in force?"

    86. Again: -- "Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers?"

    87. Again: -- "What is it that the pope remits, and what participation does he grant to those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation?"

    88. Again: -- "What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations?"

    89. "Since the pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy?"

    90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy.

    91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist.

    92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Peace, peace," and there is no peace!

    93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Cross, cross," and there is no cross!

    94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell;

    95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace.